DRUNK DRIVING DEFENSE SITES ON THE INTERNET

Informative Drunk Driving Defense Sites on the Internet:

A directory of sites maintained by Jim Forslund, a DUI defense attorney in Colorado. Links checked weekly.
Mail proposed additions to links@colorado-dui.com     RECIPROCAL LINKS APPRECIATED

dui trial lawyer drunk driving defense sites

Name Index dui attorney, dui lawyer A-B C-D E-G H-K L-M N-R S T-Z Other Countries dui attorney, dui lawyer

Also visit DUI Help-the first directory of DUI attorneys on the Net.


  1. Alabama
  2. Alaska
  3. Arizona
  4. Arkansas
  5. California
  6. Colorado
    1. Boulder-Denver-Greeley-Ft. Collins, I-70 & I-25 Corridors and Beyond
      1. Jim Forslund: When you've been arrested for a DUI and you don't think it's fair, you need a lawyer who can protect your rights...make sure you're treated fairly...and who knows how to get results.
    2. Colorado Springs
      1. Colorado Criminal Defense: When charged with a DUI offense in Colorado, your blood alcohol content (BAC) would have to have measured .08% or greater in order to warrant an arrest. This can be a frightening experience, especially if you don’t believe you were drunk or were over the limit. Should you fight your charges? Absolutely! Too often individuals charged with DUI will plead guilty and accept the penalties. While it certainly is not enjoyable to have to take legal action to defend yourself, the result of a DUI conviction can leave lasting effects on your future. By retaining a Colorado Springs DUI attorney, your chances of keeping your license and avoiding a conviction can be increased greatly.
      2. Moran, Mike: Vital information to know if charged with Driving While Intoxicated or Driving While Ability Impaired in Colorado: The Colorado division of law enforcement defines drunk driving offenses as either: 1.) Driving Under the Influence (DUI), meaning .08% or higher BAC (Blood Alcohol Content). 2.) Driving While Ability Impaired (DWAI), meaning .05% BAC or higher (but less than .08% BAC). Frequently Asked Questions After A DUI Arrest in Colorado: • Is it a requirement to hire a Colorado Springs DUI lawyer specialized in DUI/DMV defense?
      3. Stephen Anderson
    3. Durango
      1. Phillip Snyder: If you have been arrested for an alcohol or substance related driving offense, you could face stiff penalties if convicted--including jail time and a monetary fine. Hiring a lawyer to review the details of the arrest, the evidence against you, and the mitigating circumstances is an essential ingredient in assuring yourself that the judicial system is treating you fairly.
    4. Grand Junction
      1. Peters, Andrew: Colorado DUI: “DUI” stands for Driving under the Influence and occurs when someone is operating, or is in actual physical control, of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or other controlled substance, to the extent that their mental faculties are impaired and/or their Blood Alcohol Content is above the legal limit. Even for a first offense, penalties can include license suspension, substantial fines, community service, mandatory attendance at a state or DMV approved alcohol program, mandatory overnight incarceration and the required installation (at the offender’s expense) of a car ignition locking device. In addition, a DUI conviction stays on a DMV record for at least 7 years; it typically results in higher insurance premiums, and an offender may become ineligible for credit. Plus, a DUI could also jeopardize your employment opportunities. However, if someone was injured as a result of the drunken driving accident, it is possible the defendant will be charged with a felony (and if the victim dies, the driver may be charged with vehicular manslaughter). Further, a DUI conviction will likely be raised to a felony if it is the driver's fourth DUI offense or the driver has had a prior felony DUI offense within 10 years of the new charge. A DUI/DWI charge can have serious implications on your life.
    5. Pagosa Springs
      1. Robin Auld: DUI? Who Says You Have To Lose Your License and Your Freedom?
    6. Trinidad
      1. Rodolfo Reveles
  7. Connecticut
  8. Delaware
  9. Florida A-L
  10. Florida M-Z
  11. Georgia
  12. Guam
  13. Hawaii
  14. Idaho
  15. Illinois
  16. Indiana
  17. Iowa
  18. Kansas
  19. Kentucky
  20. Louisiana
  21. Maine
  22. Maryland
  23. Massachusetts
  24. Michigan
  25. Minnesota
  26. Mississippi
  27. Missouri
  28. Montana
  29. Nebraska
  30. New Hampshire
  31. New Jersey
  32. New Mexico
  33. Nevada
  34. New York
  35. North Carolina
  36. North Dakota
  37. Ohio
  38. Oklahoma
  39. Oregon
  40. Pennsylvania
  41. Puerto Rico
    1. Hector M. Hernandez Nazario: En San Juan y Cabo Rojo. Ayuda legal para manejar ebrio.
  42. Rhode Island
  43. South Carolina
  44. South Dakota
  45. Tennessee
  46. Texas Austin Criminal Defense Attorney - Law Office of Robert L Keates, handling all felonies and misdemeanors including DWI, drug possession and sales, and theft arrests.

    Hays County Criminal Defense Lawyer - Law Office of Robert L Keates, handling all Hays County Texas felonies and misdemeanors including DWI, drug possession and sales, and gang cases.

    Marijuana Possession Lawyers - Criminal Defense for Personal Use of Marijuana in all 50 states.

    Austin Criminal Defense Attorneys - representing criminal arrests for Assault, Battery, Aggrevated Assault, Deadly Weapons, Domestic Violence, Robbery, & all Felonys and Misdemeanor Arrests.

    Arrest Warrant? Call us! - Don't get picked up at home or work; Let us help clear your active arrest warrant and stay out of jail!

    ARRESTED FOR BURGLARY IN AUSTIN TEXAS? - Austin Criminal Defense Lawyer, Robert L Keates, Serving Central Texas, Austin Travis County, San Marcos, Hays County.

    Austin Criminal Defense Lawyers - Austin Criminal Defense Lawyers Criminal Law Firm representing all Thefts, Shoplifting, Burglary, Vehicle Auto Theft, Fraud, Forgery, Robbery Arrests.

    Austin DWI Lawyer - Austin DWI Criminal Defense Lawyer representing DWI cases, DMV license suspension hearings, DWI priors, DWI w/ injury.

    Austin Criminal Defense - Practicing Criminal Defense in Austin, Round Rock, San Marcos, and San Antonio. All Felonies and Misdemeanors.

    San Marcos TX Criminal Defense Lawyers - San Marcos Lawyer representing all San Marcos & Hays County Texas arrests and criminal cases.

    Theft Lawyers - Criminal Defense Lawyers & Attorneys for Theft Arrests in all 50 states.

  47. Unknown
    1. Darville, Wyndel: Are you suspected of, or charged with a crime? If your answer is yes, you need a clear understanding that the deck is stacked against you and that you need the assistance of a veteran trial attorney. Law enforcement and prosecutors are on the same team – a team with virtually unlimited resources and manpower -- whose mission is to convict you and deprive you of your freedom. By the time a citizen is charged with a criminal offense, a team of experienced law enforcement investigators and prosecutors have already investigated your case, taken witness statements, collected physical evidence, and in many cases obtained a confession. With the stroke of a pen, you the citizen are now transformed into a criminal defendant. Delay in hiring experienced counsel could ultimately have adverse effects on your attorney’s ability building a strong defense on your behalf. This delay may also force you into pleading guilty to the first “offer” that comes your way. The decision to plea guilty or fight your case at trial should be made only after you have had sufficient time to discuss all aspects of your case with your attorney.
    2. Phillips, Asa: If you are charged with Driving Under the Influence in Tennessee you need to hire an attorney who will fight for you and your future. If you have been charged with DUI or a related offense call 901-620-6940. Important - DUI guilty pleas/convictions CANNOT be expunged – have your case evaluated before you plead!
    3. Lancia, Paul: Criminal and Traffic Offenses Divorce, Custody and Child Support Issues -- Modifications and Contempt Workers Compensation Real Estate and Construction Litigation and Contractual Disputes Collections and Mechanics Liens Will Drafting and Estate Probate Providing comprehensive legal services to individuals and business in the manufacturing, service, construction and maritime industry. Admiralty and Salvage Mechanic's Liens and Bond Claims Dispute Resolution Motorcycle Accidents and traffic violations Auto, truck and boat accidents All International legal matters.
    4. Blackmore, Dana: * Divorce * DWI * Criminal
    5. Konikow, Sam: Drunk Driving 1st, 2nd, 3rd Offense OWI (Operating While Intoxicated) First Offense was at one time considered a minor and usually an isolated event. Before I started to practice law in 1978 these 1st offense cases were often plea bargained totally out of the realm of drinking offenses. Plea offers to Reckless Driving and even to the civil infraction of Careless Driving were not uncommon. Wholesale changes in the Drunk Driving laws, which occurred in 1983, 1992, 1999 have obliterated these laxaties. The drunk driving laws today are so restrictive and harsh, the Driver's Responsibility law so expensive that the hiring of counsel for representation in these cases is academic. OWI (Operating While Intoxicated) Second Offense is so severe a crime that if a person is convicted of it he/she will automatically lose their driver's license for one calendar year ( no restricted license available ). OWI (Operating While Intoxicated) THIRD Offense is a five ( 5 ) year FELONY ! Because it is a driving offense and because law enforcement looks back over a lifetime of your driving record, this felony is inexpungible.
    6. Simmons, Kathryn: A first-time offender convicted of drunk driving faces: * Up to 93 days in jail. * Up to a $500 fine. * Up to 360 hours of community service plus court costs. * Up to 6 points on a driver's license. * Up to 180 days suspended license with a restricted license possible after 30 days. Convicted drunk drivers will also be subject to a $1,000 penalty that is included in the driver responsibility program. The $1,000 penalty will be imposed for two consecutive years. Drivers may still be arrested and charged with impaired driving. However, the law no longer has a blood alcohol content associated with impairment. Those convicted of impaired driving face a $500 penalty assessed for two consecutive years.
    7. Velazquez, Isadora: 1. Immigration Law 2. Criminal Law 3. Insurance Defense
    8. Kollar, Mark: Labor & Employment Law * Wrongful Termination * Discrimination * Harassment * Unfair Labor Practices * Overtime Compensation * And other Labor & Employment Law matters Family Law * Divorce * Spousal Support (Alimony) * Property Division & Settlement * Prenuptual Agreements * Postnuptual Agreements * Name Changes * Child Custody * Child Support * Child Visitation/Parenting Time Estate Planning * Wills * Trusts & Funding of Trusts * Discretionary Trusts & Special Needs Trusts * Pet Trusts * Durable Powers of Attorney * Patient Advocate Designations Probate * Probate Estate Administration * Contested Wills & Trusts * Probate Estate Litigation * Adult & Minor Guardianships * Conservatorships * Ancillary Probate Administration Criminal Law & Traffic Tickets * DUI * Drug Cases * Shop Lifting * Business Torts * Assaults * Traffic Tickets * And other Criminal & Traffic Law related cases Litigation and Trials * District Court cases * Circuit Court cases * Appeals General Areas * Property issues * Landlord/Tenant Issues * Other disputes
    9. Waddill & Skinner: When a person finds themselves or a loved one a participant in the civil or criminal justice system, their choice of legal counsel will be the single most important choice they make. Nothing beats experience in the courthouse.
    10. Wilson Law Group: The police questioned and then arrested me without reading me a Miranda warning. Can they do this? Police officers do not have to inform persons of their right to remain silent if the person is not currently in their custody. Whether a person is in their custody in the eyes of the law turns on whether a reasonable person under similar circumstances would feel free leave. Consequently, if a police officer approaches you on the street and asks you questions, he or she does not have to read you your Miranda rights unless it appears that the police officer restricted your ability to walk away. Also, preliminary investigative questioning may not trigger the need for a Miranda warning, even though you really were not free to leave. In other words, if an officer stops you for speeding and asks you whether you had been drinking, no Miranda warning would be required because the courts have determined that a person in such a situation is not in custody. Even if the police violated your Miranda rights, the remedy for the violation is a finding that your statements cannot be used against you. It does not mean that the state cannot prosecute the case. Thus, the state will go forward with the case if the prosecutors believe that the state has enough evidence to obtain a conviction regardless of the admissibility of the statements.
    11. Ed Ryan:
      Things to know if you have been arrested for a drinking and driving case

      Was there a legal reason to stop and investigate you? Were the field sobriety test done correctly and within NTSA standards? Can you continue to drive even if you did not take the Breath/Blood test? If you lose your license can you still drive to work? Are there any witnesses or a video? What are the strength and weaknesses of your case? Can you avoid a criminal record?

      TRAFFIC STOP TIPS

      DO:

      1. BE Polite-BE QUIET
      2. Show license & Insurance
      3. Ask “Am I free to go?”
      4. If so – leave. If not- BE QUIET
      5. Sign ticket and property receipt ONLY
      6. If you consent to a breath/blood test, IMMEDIATELY request a second independent test (that is your right)

      DON’T:

      1. Admit to drinking!
      2. Perform ANY field sobriety test, including the eye test (these are NOT required by law)
      3. Argue
      4. Talk or make excuses

      WHAT YOUR LAWYER NEEDS TO KNOW TO HELP YOU

      Medical conditions, prior injuries, dental problems: all of life’s wear-and tear can be important information for your lawyer to know about to be able to help you effectively. If a potential DUI defense lawyer you are interviewing does not use a questionnaire to elicit all of your medical history, or ask probing questions about your physical condition, you may want to consider a change in counsel.

      Certain medical and dental conditions make a subject unsuitable for breath testing. Breath testing machines are supposed to be reading alcohol molecules that come from deep lung air, as this is supposed to approximate the alcohol level of the blood. Unfortunately, the machine isn’t smart enough to know whether the molecules it is reading are coming from the deep lung air, or have been trapped in the mouth, or brought up from the stomach due to a belch or esophageal reflux episode. Dentures, bridges, and other dental work can frequently trap alcohol in the mouth, especially when eating and drinking are occurring together, as is so common in social situations.

      Other medical conditions are important for attacking supposedly poor performances on field sobriety tests. These balance and coordination exercises, in which officers attempt to judge someone’s natural abilities by asking them to do unnatural maneuvers can be greatly impacted by prior injuries or conditions. Being flat-footed, having torn cartilage, or any number of physical ailments can impact a person’s ability to perform these unnatural roadside tests.

      Whether or not you are currently under a doctor’s care, anyone who stands accused of DUI would be well-served to list all prior injuries, significant illnesses, accidents, or medical conditions for their lawyer to consider. While no one enjoys enduring life’s sometimes hard knocks, all of us experience them, and these conditions, sometimes hold the key to hearing the two sweetest words in the English language: “Not Guilty.”

      POTENTIAL SOURCES OF ERROR IN BREATH TESTING

      1. Calibration of the breath machine being off
      2. Alcohol being trapped in the mouth
      3. Belching or burping within 20 minutes of being tested
      4. Medical conditions making defendant an improper subject for breath testing
      5. GERD: Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disorder
      6. Official testing protocols not being observed
      7. Breath test operator not being properly trained, Elevated body temperature
      8. Fundamental assumptions inapplicable: machine is based on “averages” that may or may not apply
      9. Breath testing during the “absorptive phase” significantly over-estimates true blood alcohol level (and the absorptive phase can last for hours after drinking stops)
      10. Did you blow into the machine more than once? Did the officer re-set the machine or change the mouth piece

      DUI FACT’S YOU PROBABLY DID NOT KNOW

      1. That body temperature can affect the breath test results.
      2. That field sobriety tests are optional. If you took them, it’s only because you submitted.
      3. That blood samples can ferment, and create artificially high alcohol reading.
      4. That a DUI conviction will cost you more than $10,000.00 over the next three years.
      5. The court could order you to have ignition interlock device installed in your car.
      6. There are alternatives to some or part of a jail sentence with electronic monitoring and community service.
      7. That if you hire a lawyer, in some cases the lawyer can appear in court for you while you go about your normal everyday life.
      8. Each shot of liquor, glass of wine, or mug of beer raises your BAC and average of .02%.
      9. If you have a license from another state it will be up to that state to suspend your license.
      10. If you refuse to take a blood or breath test after you’ve been arrested the court could still suspend your license if found not guilty of the DUI.
      11. You will be required to file SR-22 insurance if you get convicted of a DUI or violation of implied consent and get a restricted license.
      12. There are different levels of DUI School depending on the assessment, and what offense DUI it is.
      13. That only a DUI conviction mandates a loss of license and alcohol school and lesser charge that is negotiable.
      14. Not all DUI arrest result in DUI convictions, many settlement alternatives are available.
      15. You have a right to a jury trial in a DUI case.
      16. To be convicted at trial, all 12 jurors must be convinced in your guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. If even one juror votes in your favor, you cannot be convicted.
      17. According to breath machine manufacturer, there is a margin of error in breath testing equipment.
      18. The arresting officer is required to continuously observe the subject for the twenty minutes immediately before the breath test, to make sure the subject doesn’t burp, or place anything in there mouth.
      19. The legal limit used to be .15 before it was dropped to .10, and then reduced again to .08?
      20. Most car rental companies won’t rent to someone with a pending DUI case or with a restricted license. Your best bet is with a small “mom and pop” car rental company, and not the big national brands.
      21. That a tongue piercing can cause an inaccurate breath test reading by trapping alcohol in the mouth.
  48. Utah
  49. Vermont
  50. Virginia
  51. Washington
  52. Washington, DC Washington, DC Washington, DC Washington, DC Washington, DC Washington, DC
  53. West Virginia
  54. Wisconsin
  55. Wyoming

    Other Countries

  56. Australia
  57. Canada
  58. China
    1. Beijing-Chen & Associates
  59. Costa Rica
    1. Brenes Law: Criminal Law Criminal law, also known as penal law, involves prosecution by the government of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime. Freedom has its limits and the most absolute is criminal law. A "crime" is any act or omission (of an act) in violation of a public law forbidding or commanding it, punishable with loss of personal freedom. Among the areas of crime that fall under the Costa Rican criminal law statutes: White Collar Crime; Bribery; Counterfeiting / Forgery; Embezzlement; Fraud; Insurance Fraud; Government Fraud; Murder / Homicide; Restrictive Business Practices; Tax Evasion; Violent Crime; Theft / Property Crime; Drug Crime; and starting December 2008, DUI (driving under the influence). Plea bargaining, evidence, trials, sentencing, appeals, and arrest, search and seizure law demand attention vis-a-vis the clients' Constitutional rights.
  60. Denmark
    1. Christian Vinaa:


      bil + drink = straf
  61. Egypt
    1. Eskander, Michael: • Murder and manslaughter • Agg. Asslt. (Aggravated Assault) • Agg. Asslt. Dang. (Aggravated Assault, Dangerous Felony) • Sexual offences, including rape • Robbery • Theft • Burglary • Firearms offences • Drugs offences • Reckless driving and other driving offences, including DUIs • Deception • Fraud • Conspiracy • And those issued with a Court Summons.
  62. England
    1. Solicitors Gloucestershire: Specialists in family & commercial law, personal injury, divorce, employment & property law. Freephone 0800 389 7203.
    2. Legal Jobs: BCL Legal are a legal recruitment agency specialising in legal jobs in a variety of roles across the UK. For more information or to view a list of available law jobs visit the website>
  63. Hong Kong
    1. Nyman Gibson Stewart: (Ask) whether the blood alcohol concentration reading was accurate, whether time limits were observed, whether your case could be defended or the seriousness reduced for example from high range to mid range or mid range to low range, and discuss the consequences of being a disqualified driver, suspended driver or cancelled driver. What is Prescribed Concentration of Alcohol? Prescribed Concrentation of Alcohol simply means the amount of alcohol measured in grammes per 100mL of blood. High Range Prescribed Concentration of Alcohol (HRPCA) means a concentration of 0.15 grammes or more of alcohol in 100mL of blood. This would mean that if you had an unrestricted licence, you would be at least 3 times over the legal limit of 0.05. What are the penalties for HRPCA? The penalties for HRPCA are as follows: Maximum Fine: $3,300.00 Maximum Term of Imprisonment: 18 months Automatic Disqualification Period: 3 years Minimum Disqualification Period: 12 months Can a Disqualification Period be Avoided? If you plead guilty to HRPCA, a disqualification period can be avoided only if the Court makes an order under section 10 of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999. This means that the Court has found you guilty of the offence without recording a conviction. The Guideline Judgement - How Does it Relate to You? On 8 September 2004 the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal (NSWCCA) handed down a guideline judgement for the offence of "Driving with a HRPCA". The NSWCCA stated that an 'ordinary case' is one where: 1. You drove to avoid personal inconvenience or because the offender did not believe that he or she was sufficiently affected by alcohol; 2. You were detected by random breath test; 3. You have prior good character; 4. You have nil, or a minor, traffic record; 5. Your licence was suspended on detection; 6. You pleaded guilty; 7. There is little or no risk of re-offending; or 8. You would be significantly inconvenienced by loss of licence. The 'ordinary case' is now used by sentencing Courts as a template in determining whether your matter is similar or more or less serious. Prior to the guideline judgment most lawyers would have agreed that an 'ordinary case' was a very good case. The NSWCCA went on to state, that in an 'ordinary case', an order under section 10 of the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act will rarely be appropriate. A conviction cannot be avoided only because the offender has attended or will attend a driver's education or awareness course. Further, the automatic disqualification period (3 years) will be appropriate unless there is good reason to reduce the period of disqualification. Good reasons may include the following: 1. The nature of your employment; 2. The absence of any viable alternative transport; or 3. Sickness or infirmity of you or another person. Obviously, the NSWCCA has stated that the penalties will be more severe for a person who commits a second or subsequent HRPCA offence (second offence within 5 years). A section 10 for a second or subsequent HRPCA 'would very rarely be appropriate'. In fact the Court stated that where the prior offence was a HRPCA any sentence of less severity than Community Service Order would generally be inappropriate. Your moral culpability is increased if any of the following factors are present: 1. The degree of intoxication above 0.15; 2. Erractic or aggressive driving; 3. A collision between your vehicle and any other object; 4. Competitive driving and showing off; 5. The length of the journey at which others are exposed to risk; and 6. The number of persons actually put at risk by the driving. Where a number of these factors are present to a significant degree, a sentence of less severity than imprisonment of some kind including a suspended sentence, would generally be inappropriate. Where a number of these factors are present to a significant degree for a second or subsequent HRPCA offence a sentence of any less severity than full-time imprisonment would generally be inappropriate. It is the writer's experience that most sentencing Courts have now adopted the principles for HRPCA and applying them to the offences of Novice Range PCA through to Mid Range PCA. Although the NSWCCA has stated that a driver's education course is not a reason to make an order under section 10, it can be used as a reason for the sentencing Court to reduce the disqualification period or fine. The judgement fails to make the distinction between the experienced driver who has been driving for 30 years with nil record and the driver who has been driving for 1 year with nil record. The guideline judgement may be making the sentencing Courts hand out harsher penalties but time will only tell whether or not it will decrease the rate of drink driving on our roads.
  64. Romania
    1. Larisa Somfalean: awyers possess the keys to justice under a rule of law -- the keys that open the courtroom door. Those keys are not held for lawyers' own private purposes; they are held in trust for those who would seek justice, rich and poor alike. Ensuring that there is, indeed, "equal justice under law" - not just for the wealthy, but for the poor, the disadvantaged, and the disenfranchised - is the law, sustenance that brings meaning and joy to a lawyer's professional life.
  65. Scotland
    1. O'Donnell, Liam: * Dangerous driving. * Drink driving. * Driving whilst disqualified. * Careless driving. * Driving whilst using a mobile phone. * Speeding. * Failure to provide a specimen. * Drunk in charge of a motor vehicle. * Other road traffic contraventions involving red lights, one way streets, pelican crossings, etc.
  66. Singapore
    1. Raffles Law: When a driver is charged under section 67 or 68, evidence that he had at the material time a blood alcohol concentration in excess of 80mg of alcohol in 100ml of blood creates a presumption that he was incapable of having proper control of the vehicle. The onus then falls on the accused to rebut the presumption. He may not do so, however, by showing that he has a great capacity for alcohol, since the specific limit set in section 70 is plainly intended to preclude the individual accused from introducing medical evidence as to his personal tolerance for drink.
  67. Slovenia
    1. Celja-Pelko, Rok: Labor law - Civil law - Comercial law - Criminal law - Offences
  68. New Zealand
    1. Hawke's Bay-Bannister and von Dadelszen: The police officer who is dealing with you in these situations can take two approaches. The officer can make it easy for you or he/she can make it hard for you. Invariably, if you, as a potential offender, are arrogant, obnoxious or abusive, you will be dealt with differently than a person who is polite and cordial. After all, it is the police who decide whether or not to release you that evening. In many cases, the police will give a non-demanding offender a lift home. Those who are offensive will, at the worst, find themselves locked up in the cells to "sober up" or, at best, find themselves walking home.